The charcoal canister—also known as the EVAP system—is an emissions control device used to capture gas vapors that escape from a vehicle’s fuel tank. The canister contains activated charcoal, which draws vapors into the engine, where they can then be burned to generate power. However, if the system fails, it can cause foul gas odors to leak from the engine and cut into fuel efficiency.
Although it is safe to drive around with a bad charcoal canister, it’s not advisable. As you continue to operate the vehicle, the engine will slowly leak noxious gas fumes, causing you to feel dizzy and nauseated. Additionally, your vehicle will likely fail to meet U.S. emissions standards and suffer decreased performance until you replace the part.
If you are unsure of how to handle a bad charcoal canister, continue reading to learn more. In this guide, we’ll discuss why it’s such an essential part, explain what causes the charcoal canister to go bad, and describe some of the most common signs of a bad EVAP system. If you notice any of these issues, consult a mechanic as soon as possible.
What is the Charcoal Canister and How Does it Work?
The charcoal canister is a small, cylindrical device located near the back of the vehicle’s undercarriage, typically on the driver’s side near the fuel tank. It is connected to the engine via a series of hoses and valves and is filled with activated charcoal, which is a type of porous carbon that has been treated to increase its absorbency.
When the engine is running, the charcoal canister captures vapors that escape from the fuel tank. These vapors are then drawn into the engine, where they can be burned to generate power. By regulating the release of gas vapors, the charcoal canister is able to reduce vehicle emissions and improve fuel economy.
The charcoal canister is also a mandated part under federal emissions regulations, as it helps to reduce air pollution, particularly in dense urban areas. It is estimated that the charcoal canister removes up to 90% of hydrocarbon vapors that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere.
What Causes Charcoal Canisters to Go Bad?
The charcoal canister’s simple design and function make it fairly sturdy compared to other parts but it’s still susceptible to damage. The most common reasons for a charcoal canister to go bad include:
- Overfilling the Gas Tank: Nearly all problems with the charcoal canister can be attributed to overfilling your gas tank. If you repeatedly fill the tank to the brim, it creates excess pressure within the tank, forcing gasoline into the charcoal canister, where it saturates the activated charcoal. This reduces the material’s effectiveness and damages the canister.
- Physical Damage: Because the charcoal canister is located toward the bottom of the vehicle, it is susceptible to physical damage. If you bottom out your vehicle, it can knock the canister loose, allowing water to seep into the system and damage the activated charcoal within.
For this reason, it’s best to only fill your gas tank until the pump clicks, signaling that the tank is full. Adding more gasoline could flood the system and force bits of charcoal into the ignition system.
Signs of a Bad Charcoal Canister
If your vehicle’s charcoal canister has gone bad, you’ll likely notice one or more of the following symptoms:
- Check Engine Light: The check engine light is one of the first signs that something is wrong with your vehicle. If the light is illuminated, it means that the engine is not running as efficiently as it should be. There are a number of reasons why the light may come on, but a failing charcoal canister is one possibility.
- Foul Smells: If you notice a strong smell of gasoline emanating from your engine, it’s a good sign that the EVAP system has failed. You may also notice a rotten egg smell coming from the engine. This smell is caused by the build-up of hydrogen sulfide, which is a by-product of the gasoline combustion process.
- Reduced Fuel Economy: A failing charcoal canister can also lead to reduced fuel economy. If you’ve ever heard the saying “riding on fumes”, you know that a combustion engine can ignite gas vapors to produce energy. However, if the vapors are allowed to escape, your engine will waste fuel and your vehicle will not ride as far on a full tank of gasoline.
- A Hissing Fuel Tank: If you hear a hissing noise coming from your fuel tank whenever you go to fill up, it indicates that the EVAP system is not properly absorbing gas vapors. This can also create unwanted pressure in the fuel tank, making it harder to add more gasoline into the system, even if your tank is nearly empty.
If you notice any of these issues, it’s best to consult a mechanic as soon as possible. They will be able to diagnose the problem and recommend the best course of action.
Can You Drive with a Bad Charcoal Canister?
In most cases, a bad charcoal canister will not affect your vehicle’s ability to drive. At most, it may make it harder to start the engine but, once running, your vehicle should perform as usual. The only difference is that you’ll lose some fuel efficiency and likely have to suffer with constant foul odors.
This can become dangerous if you are sensitive to the smell of gasoline. Gas vapors are a noxious mixture of chemicals that can cause dizziness, nausea, and headaches. If you are exposed to high levels of gasoline fumes, you may also experience lightheadedness, blurred vision, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can quickly lead to unconsciousness.
For this reason, it’s best to replace a bad charcoal canister as soon as possible. Not only will it improve your vehicle’s performance, but it will also create a safer and more enjoyable driving environment.
Can You Change Your Own Charcoal Canister?
Removing and replacing a faulty charcoal canister isn’t a difficult job and can be done with common hand tools. To complete this repair:
- Lift your vehicle using a jack and slide a set of stands under the frame to support the vehicle’s weight.
- Locate the charcoal canister toward the back driver’s side of the vehicle and spray penetrating oil onto the bolts and connectors to ease removal.
- Disconnect any hoses and mark them for easy reinstallation.
- Using a ratchet and a socket set, loosen the bolts holding the canister in place and remove the part.
- Install the new canister and reconnect any hoses to their appropriate links.
- The total repair shouldn’t take more than 20 minutes and will only cost you the price of a new canister—anywhere from $100 to $1,000 depending on the make and model of your vehicle.
The Bottom Line
Your vehicle’s EVAP system is responsible for collecting harmful gas vapors. If the canister goes bad, it can cause a host of problems for your vehicle, including decreased fuel economy, reduced performance, and foul odors. If you notice any of these issues, consult a mechanic as soon as possible. Fortunately, the canister can be replaced relatively easily and inexpensively in most cases.